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Anaerobic glycolysis plays an important role in strenuous The Undertaker, especially in conditions of inadequate oxygen supply to the tissues. It serves as a biochemical basis for speed endurance training; it is the main source of biological energy in exercises, the duration of which varies between 0.5–3.0 minutes (middle distance running, swimming 100–200 m, cycling races on the track, almost all gymnastics and acrobatic exercises, etc.). Due to it, long-term accelerations are also performed along the course of the exercises and at the finish of the distance.
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Anything that leads to the accumulation of glycogen in the liver and muscles will be accompanied by an increase in the activity of anaerobic glycolysis. It is for this reason that carbohydrates form the basis of the nutrition of healthy people and athletes (70%) undertaker wrestlemania. The activity of glycogen synthesis significantly increased immediately after exercise, and therefore the saturation of carbohydrates should begin immediately after the load.
Possibilities of metabolic correction. Reducing the level of lactic acid and, accordingly, muscle fatigue during anaerobic work is an interesting direction of metabolic correction. The mechanism of action of citrulline malate (Stimol) is that malate acts as a metabolic mediator to help circumvent the ammonia block of the oxidative pathway and limit the accumulation of lactic acid by reorienting it towards gluconeogenesis, and citrulline as an intermediate product of the urea cycle accelerates this cycle and eliminates ammonia. This drug can be considered as the best choice of therapy for asthenic syndrome of various origins, acceptable for patients of all age groups.
The drug effectively stimulates the Krebs cycle, prevents the development of lactic acidosis, increases the level of ATP production undertaker height. In sports, citrulline used 3 g twice a day on an empty stomach. Some experts recommend taking the drug for 30 minutes before the start of training and immediately after its completion.
1.2.5. Resynthesis of adenosine triphosphate in an aerobic process Myocardum is very different from skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle refers to continuously functioning organs undertaker wife. It is characterized by aerobic transformation of substances. Despite the fact that during muscular work the function of the heart also increases, its compensatory-protective systems contribute to greater efficiency, if the heart is not affected by any pathological process. The main feature of the myocardium is that during intensive work it does not accumulate lactic acid during the breakdown of glycogen, this is due to the predominance of aerobic processes over the anaerobic in the myocardium how old is undertaker. Moreover, lactic acid is one of the main sources of energy for the myocardium. Along with it, pyruvic acid, glucose, glycogenic amino acids and fatty acids are consumed as an energy source.
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Skeletal muscles, unlike the heart, can not directly utilize lactic acid. To use it with skeletal muscles, lactic acid must get into the liver, where it turns into glycogen, which is then utilized by working muscles.
Myocardial use of lactic acid, which is formed in the working skeletal muscle and contributes to its fatigue, is one of the surprising examples of compensatory adaptability. Other compensatory mechanisms of the heart are the ability to use the anaerobic pathway of direct conversion of glucose into lactic acid (skeletal muscles do not have this ability) and the presence of myoglobin in the myocardium, which is a local oxygen reservoir that can be released only at its low partial pressure.
Released into the extracellular environment, lactic acid is rapidly absorbed into the blood, increasing the normal levels of lactic acid in the blood the undertaker height. The protective mechanism in the bloodstream – the bicarbonate buffer system – destroys lactic acid to form CO as the final reaction product. Although it is removed from the body, its “non-metabolic excess” in a large amount resulting from a chemical reaction is brought in large quantities by the blood stream into the medulla. In response to this powerful irritant, the vasomotor and respiratory vegetative centers intensify the activity of the corresponding organs and systems, pulmonary ventilation and the speed of oxygen delivery to the working muscles are enhanced. An amazing transformation occurs, very figuratively called the “transition to the second wind”. There is a feeling of satisfaction from the work performed – “the state of muscle joy” how old is the undertaker. This is an interesting phenomenon in sports biochemistry called oxidative phosphorylation reaction, since the basis of energy supply, necessary to maintain its viability and functional activity, lies oxidative phosphorylation of two main substrates of free fatty acids (FFA) glucose and, to some extent, lactate.
FFA relatively freely penetrate the cell membrane the undertaker net worth. The rate of seizure of FLC is determined primarily by their concentration in the blood, which can vary significantly from 0.1 to 1.5 mmol.
When released into the cytosol, SLC is partially esterified to form triglycerides, thus being deposited intracellularly, and partially acetylated, turning into the active form, acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA). The latter interacts with the carrier protein carnitine to form acyl carnitine, and in this complex FFAs penetrate into the mitochondria. Here, acyl carnitine is cleaved to carnitine, which returns to the cytosol, and acyl-CoA undergoes b-oxidation, which results in the formation of acetyl-CoA, which is the substrate of the Krebs cycle.
Glucose, unlike FLC, penetrates the cell membrane only with the help of the types of special protein-carrier GLUT1 – in insulin-sensitive tissues and GLUT4 – in insulin-sensitive, which include the myocardium. The expression of GLUT4 on the membrane of cardiomyocytes is determined by the content of insulin in the blood, and if less than 10% of this carrier is expressed on the membrane at rest, then under the action of insulin in a high concentration, the expression of GLUT4 increases 7-10 times.
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In cytosol, glucose and lactate are converted into pyruvate by anaerobic glycolysis, i.e., without oxygen,. In this case, 4 ATP molecules are formed from a single glucose molecule, but 2 of them are consumed during the reaction. Therefore, anaerobic glycolysis can provide no more than 2% of the total amount of ATP normally consumed by the cell undertaker retires. However, at this stage, the process does not stop, and pyruvate enters the mitochondria. Here, with the participation of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDG), it is converted to acetyl CoA, which creates a common pool with acetyl CoA, which is formed from FFA.
It is characteristic that there is a competitive relationship between FLC and glucose as oxidation substrates – the presence of FLC prevents glucose utilization. This is determined by the fact that the products of b-oxidation of FLC – reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and acetyl-CoA – are natural inhibitors of PDH and interfere with the aerobic oxidation of glucose undertaker death. Therefore, with an increase in the content of FLC in plasma and their enhanced supply to the CMC, the utilization of glucose and glycogen in muscles decreases in parallel with the decrease in the activity of PDH.
A particularly high level of FFA in the blood is noted in patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus (as a result of a reduced insulin content in the blood or reduced sensitivity of adipose tissue cells to it). Therefore, in this category of patients, marked disturbances in the energy metabolism of the myocardium and hypersensitivity to disturbances in its blood supply are noted. An increase in plasma FFA concentration with subsequent metabolic disturbances also occurs under conditions of starvation.
A decrease in plasma FFA concentration or pharmacological effects, which inhibit their oxidation in mitochondria, on the contrary, increase the utilization of glucose and lactate as a result of an increase in PDG activity and an increase in the rate of pyruvate transport to mitochondria. At the height of intense physical activity, as well as after taking nicotinic acid, the content of FFA in the blood decreases by about 4 times, while an increase in the activity of PDH is noted in combination with increased glycogenolysis and an increase in the rate of glucose utilization in skeletal muscles.
Under conditions of normal blood supply, the main source of energy supply is utilization of FFA. This forms up to 90% of the total ATP consumed by the muscle The Undertaker. This is determined by the fact that the disposal of FLC gives the maximum energy output per unit of substrate. So, with the complete oxidation of one palmitic acid molecule, 130 ATP molecules are formed, with the oxidation of one glucose molecule — 38 ATP molecules, and with anaerobic glycolysis of one glucose molecule, the yield is only 2 molecules.
It is obvious that the aerobic mechanism of ATP resynthesis is distinguished by the highest productivity.
For example, the splitting of glycogen and the splitting of fats (palmitic acid) undertaker net worth. However, the utilization of FFAs is associated with higher oxygen consumption, resulting in the amount of ATP per 1 mole of absorbed oxygen by glucose utilization by 15% more than that of FFA. This means that under conditions of normal blood supply and high reserve capacity to provide it with oxygen, more efficient way of energy formation is utilization of FFA, but during ischemia, glucose becomes the preferred substrate.
Both in sports and in the clinic under conditions of hypoxia, preparations are used to activate aerobic glycolysis and suppress aerobic splitting of fats. In this case, the share of FFA oxidation is 70%, and the share of glucose oxidation is 30%. In practice, with the use of various drugs, it is possible to reduce the proportion of oxidizable FFAs to 40–50%, and a partial restriction of the metabolism of FLCs will lead to an increase in energy output of only 5%. This is the price issue.
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Common ways to suppress the breakdown of fats.
1. Suppression of lipolysis and, accordingly, inhibition of catecholamine-dependent release of FFA through the use of β-blockers.
2. Nicotinic acid – inhibits lipolysis and the synthesis of triglycerides.
3 the undertaker age. Direct inhibitors of β-oxidation of FFA (trimetazidine, ranolazine).
Trimetazidine was patented in 1961 by the French company Servier as a metabolic drug that increases exercise tolerance for angina. In mitochondria, it inhibits the oxidation of long-chain and short-chain FLCs, blocking the last reaction of the 4-step oxidation process (3-ketoacyl-CoA-thiolase) jodi lynn the undertaker. But activated FFAs, accumulating in mitochondria, block ATP transport and at the same time act as surfactants that traumatize cell membranes and cause their destruction. The EMIP-FR study (1996) showed that trimetazidine, used to treat myocardial infarction, in the form of a 48-hour infusion (briefly, in the acute phase) is comparable in effectiveness to placebo.
Ranolazine is approved in the United States for the treatment of chronic angina, but not suitable for all patients. In women, the effect of ranolazine on the severity of symptoms of angina pectoris and exercise tolerance is lower than in men.
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4. Inhibitors of the functioning of the carnitine-palmitin complex, which provides for the accumulation of FFA in mitochondria (mildronate).
Mildronate reversibly limits the rate of carnitine biosynthesis from its predecessor, γ-butyrobetaine, and since carnitine is used to transport long-chain FLCs through mitochondrial membranes, FLC flux and their accumulation in mitochondria decrease, which does not affect the metabolism of short-chain FLCs. This means that mildronate is practically incapable of a toxic effect on mitochondrial respiration, because it blocks the oxidation of not all FFAs. The drug is limited to 2 weeks.
1 undertaker age. Glucose-insulin-potassium mixture (ECLA research, DIGAMI).
2 undertaker retirement. Carnitine (propionyl-L-carnitine – suppresses intramitochondrial coenzyme A). Clinical value is shown in myopathies. Oral administration of 2–6 gsuts for more than two weeks resulted in improved aerobic capacity. However, the effect of carnitine on the results of athletes in the competition led to disappointing results.
3 the undertaker spouse. Pyruvic acid. Studies in the laboratory have proven that pyruvate enhances muscle endurance. With all this, many bodybuilders, practitioners complain that the drug does not work. This is due to the diversity of opinions regarding the working dose. Manufacturers advised to take 5 – 6 g daily, but in laboratory experiments doses of 20 – 25 g were used.