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Red muscle fibers are included in the work later whites, when there are certain conditions of metabolism Arnold Schwarzenegger. These fibers have a low glycolysis rate, but a high intensity of tissue respiration, a high content of myoglobin and mitochondria, a low activity of the myosin ATPase, a low buffer capacity, and a significantly less developed AB. Red fibers are designed to perform work of light or moderate power, but for a long time. If necessary, work can be done for hours.
The presence of red and white fibers in the human body – a factor genetically determined, training can not be changed. Figuratively speaking, all people on earth can be divided into “sprinters” who have predominantly developed white fibers and with whom powerful and short-term work is more easily tolerated, and “stayers” – they have predominantly developed red fibers, they have less power and long-term work arnold schwarzenegger mistress. This fact was the basis of identifying children who are predisposed to success in specific sports.
Regulation of muscle functioning. There is a strict sequence of changes in energy reactions. As soon as the capacitive characteristics of a particular reaction are exhausted by 50%, the next reaction begins to unfold. For some time, both reactions work together, then the first one stops and the bioenergetic provision of muscle activity is carried out by the second reaction arnold schwarzenegger memes. When this reaction has exhausted its capacitive characteristics by 50%, the next one begins to unfold. They also work together for some time, then the second reaction fades away and the bioenergy supply of muscle activity comes at the expense of the third reaction.
The energy released during the hydrolysis of ATP is spent on changing the spatial relationship of contractile proteins arnold schwarzenegger steroids. According to modern concepts of molecular biology, with muscle contraction, repeated formation and destruction of adhesions between the myosin molecules of myosin and actin occurs.
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The splitting of ATP in the muscle occurs at a very high speed – up to 10 μmmin per 1 g of muscle serve further products for synthetic processes. The released energy is converted into mechanical work. ATPase energy provides sports such as sprint, golf, tennis.
Accumulate more ATP muscle can not arnold schwarzenegger. Meanwhile, the minimum amount of ATP can not fall below a genetically determined level. If this happens, there will be a breakdown of the “calcium pump”, and the muscle will contract until the complete exhaustion of all ATP reserves and the development of a state of persistent muscle contraction.
There are usually enough ATP reserves in the muscle for energy supply of 3–4 single cuts of maximum strength, i.e., 0.5–1.0 s of work.
However, there is no significant decrease in ATP concentration. This is explained by the fact that in the course of work, ATP is recovered from the decay products at the same rate as it splits arnold schwarzenegger gif. Energy is necessary for resynthesis of ATP from its decay products.
ATP in mitochondria is formed in the Krebs cycle, where acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is oxidized with the participation of oxygen to CO and the formation of ATP. With the help of a transfer enzyme, adenine nucleotide translocase ATP moves from mitochondria to the cytosol, where it is used in various metabolic reactions.
In the history, three ways of increasing ATP levels have been tested.
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1. During the First World War, it was believed that the appointment of phosphate in food (4 g / day) can improve a person’s physical condition. Later controlled clinical trials did not confirm the effectiveness of the phosphate load.
2 arnold schwarzenegger today. Introduction of inosine (adenosine, riboxin). It also does not make sense, since there is no shortage and excess of ADP and adenosine monophosphoric acid (AMP) in the cell. In athletes, the use of inosine did not affect the aerobic capacity and worsened anaerobic jodi lynn the undertaker. Inosine is metabolized to uric acid and leads to hyperuricemia. When administered intravenously, riboxin will disintegrate in a fraction of a second almost at the injection site.
3 arnold schwarzenegger movies list. Introduction of exogenous ATP constituted the basis of metabolic therapy in the 60s – 80s. last century. Since only mitochondrial ATP is used in the cell, attempts to improve muscle metabolism through the introduction of exogenous failed.
1.2.2. Resynthesis of adenosine triphosphate in the myokinase reaction. Myokinase reaction occurs in muscles with a significant increase in the concentration of ADP in the cytoplasm of the cell arnold schwarzenegger illegitimate son. This situation occurs when there is marked muscle fatigue, when the rate of ATP resynthesis processes does not balance the rate of its hydrolysis. From this point of view, the myokinase reaction can be considered as an emergency mechanism providing resynthesis of ATP under conditions where it cannot be carried out by other means arnold schwarzenegger poster. When the myokinase reaction is enhanced, part of the resulting AMP can be irreversibly deaminated and removed from the energy exchange. This is very disadvantageous to the body, since deamination of AMP leads to a decrease in the total reserves of ATP in the muscles, with all the ensuing consequences. And, nevertheless, a slight increase in the concentration of AMP in the cytoplasm has an activating effect on glycolysis enzymes and thereby contributes to an increase in the rate of anaerobic ATP resynthesis.
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1.2.3. Resynthesis of adenosine triphosphate in creatinine phosphatase reaction In sports biochemistry, creatinine phosphatase reaction is called the energy buffer reaction, or the reaction of re-phosphorylation where Cr is creatine.
In human muscles, creatinine phosphokinase has a high activity, and the starting materials of the reaction, ADP and CrF, exhibit high chemical affinity, therefore, the reaction starts simultaneously with the onset of hydrolysis arnold schwarzenegger naked. This reaction reaches its highest speed by the second second. Enzymatic provision of the reaction is activated by Ca ions and, oddly enough, creatinine – the final product of the reaction, which prevents a decrease in its intensity.
This reaction is the first to be included in the process of ATP resynthesis and proceeds with considerable intensity until the CrF stocks in the muscles are exhausted. The reaction of the “energy buffer” is called for the fact that it ensures the constancy of the content of ATP in the muscles with sharp drops in the speed of its use.
The CRP content in the muscles is about 3 times higher than the ATP content arnold schwarzenegger. The total reserves of phosphogenes in the muscles provide muscular work with maximum strength for 10–15 s. In the first seconds, while the concentration of KrF in the muscles is high, creatinine phosphokinase activity is maintained at a high level, this reaction involves the majority of ADP in the process and this blocks the development of other bioenergetic reactions. Only after the CRF reserves in the muscles are exhausted by 50% (the fifth to sixth seconds of work), the reaction rate begins to decrease and glycolysis gradually enters the process of ATP resynthesis best arnold schwarzenegger movies. This happens with an increase in the duration of work. By the thirtieth second, the reaction rate decreases by 2 times, and by the third minute it is only 1.5% of its initial value.
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Creatinine phosphatase reaction proceeds without oxygen, it is easily reversible arnold schwarzenegger soundboard. After cessation of work, when an excess of ATP appears in the muscles, the CRF resynthesis reaction occurs, leading to its restoration to the initial level.
The creatinine phosphatase reaction forms the biochemical basis of local muscular endurance. It plays a crucial role in the energy supply of short-term maximum power exercises – sprinting (100–200 m), jumping, throwing, weightlifting exercises. This reaction provides the possibility of a quick transition from dormancy to work, sudden changes in tempo during its execution, and final acceleration (spurt).
Possibilities of metabolic correction. The additional administration of creatine phosphate seemed to be a tempting way of enhancing the energy potential of the contractile and plastic processes arnold schwarzenegger movie quotes. Unfortunately, exogenous creatine phosphate does not penetrate the cell membrane and cannot normally enter the cell. This feature appears in violation of the permeability of cell membranes in acute injuries caused by ischemia or excessive exercise arnold schwarzenegger nude. In sports medicine, creatine phosphate in a dose of 20 gsut can be useful for short-term intense physical exertion (sprint, hockey, etc.). In bodybuilding, creatine allows you to significantly increase the intensity of the training, and a clear increase in strength is felt after 7–10 days of taking the drug at a dose of 10 g / day (after 5 days before the workout).
In the clinic, creatine phosphate is used only for acute myocardial infarction.
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1.2.4. Resynthesis of adenosine triphosphate in anaerobic glycolysis reaction As soon as the muscle-building process of the creatinine phosphatase reaction ceases to provide the necessary ATP recovery rate and the concentration of free ADP molecules in the cell increases, anaerobic glycolysis plays a major role in ATP resynthesis arnold schwarzenegger movies. In the process of glycolysis, the intramuscular stores of glycogen and glucose are broken down enzymatically to lactic acid. In this case, one molecule of glucose synthesizes only two molecules of ATP. Increasing the concentration of ADP and inorganic phosphorus in the cytoplasm of the cell, as well as free Ca ions, contribute to the rapid incorporation of glycolysis into the work.
The maximum glycolysis capacity is slightly lower than the previous creatinine phosphatase reaction arnold schwarzenegger young. Glycolysis reaches its highest rate as early as the thirtieth second of work, and by the end of the first minute it becomes the main source of ATP resynthesis energy. However, the rapid depletion of small glycogen stores in the muscles and the decrease in the activity of the key enzymes of the glycolytic chain under the influence of accumulating lactic acid leads to a decrease in the rate of glycolysis. So, on the twelfth-fifteenth minutes of work, the rate of glycolysis is only half of the original value.
The metabolic capacity of glycolysis is determined by the intramuscular stores of carbohydrates and the size of the buffer systems, which ensures the maintenance of a given power of muscle activity in the time interval from 30 s to 2.5 min. Thus, the glycolysis capacity is more than 10 times higher than the capacity of the creatinine phosphatase reaction. And, nevertheless, the effectiveness of glycolysis is low arnold schwarzenegger quotes. This is due to the fact that most of the energy is conserved in molecules of lactic acid, which is an intermediate, oxidized product of a chemical reaction. Canned energy can only be released as a result of aerobic oxidation. Therefore, the efficiency of the reaction is only about 37%, that is, more than half of the total energy released is converted into heat and cannot be used for resynthesis. As a result of the increase in the rate of heat production in the working muscles, their temperature rises to 41 – 42 ° C.
The formation of lactic acid, an oxidized, intermediate product of a glycolytic reaction, occurs only under anaerobic conditions. In the presence of oxygen, the product of the glycolytic reaction is pyruvic acid. The accumulation of lactic acid during anaerobic work is directly dependent on the power and time of work. Increasing the amount of lactic acid in the cytoplasm of muscle cells leads to a pH shift in the acidic side (metabolic acidosis), impaired diffusion and osmosis. The cell membrane “opens” the cell, lactic acid enters the extracellular medium, and water is sucked from the intercellular medium into the cells, which causes their swelling and rigidity. This can cause muscle pain.
When alternating periods of contraction and rest, the muscle can work without fatigue. With intensive work in conditions of lack of oxygen, the formed lactic acid easily diffuses from the muscles into the arnold schwarzenegger, and its content in the blood increases. Normally, blood contains 0.555 – 2.220 mmol lactic acid. With moderate muscle activity, its concentration in the blood may increase by 2 to 3 times, with hard work this increase is even more pronounced. The concentration of lactic acid increases in both muscle and blood. The concentration of ammonia and other decomposition products of adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate acids also increases.