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However, such large doses can upset digestion Jay Cutler naked. The best use of the drug – fractional doses of 2 – 4 g. Under normal conditions, the share of aerobic processes accounts for about 90% of the total amount of ATP resynthesized in the body. Enzyme systems of aerobic metabolism are located mainly in the membranes of mitochondrial cristae. It is here that myoglobin delivers oxygen, transporting it from the cell membrane.
In a qualitative assessment of oxidative phosphorylation, the energy efficiency is about 67% Jay Cutler meme. The total energy output in the aerobic process is more than 10 times higher than that in the anaerobic glycolytic process.
As substrates of aerobic transformations in working muscles, not only intramuscular stores of carbohydrates, but also liver glycogen, fats and proteins can be used. Therefore, the total capacity of the aerobic process is very large and can not be a common assessment Jay Cutler retired. If the total energy capacity of the carbohydrate depot in a young healthy man is about 2800 kcal, then the total energy capacity of the fat depot is about 80 000 kcal.
Unlike anaerobic glycolysis, the metabolic capacity of which is largely limited to changes in homeostasis due to the accumulation of excess lactic acid in the body, the final products of aerobic transformations – CO and water – do not cause any changes in homeostasis and are easily eliminated from the body, therefore the aerobic reaction of resynthesis ATP is considered as “pure”.
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The power of the aerobic process largely depends on the rate of oxygen supply to the tissues, the effectiveness of external respiration processes and the rate of oxygen utilization by the cells (tissue respiration), which in turn depends on the number of mitochondria, the number and activity of enzymes, the amount of myoglobin, the percentage of red and white muscle fibers, etc.
The power of aerobic energy production is estimated by the maximum oxygen consumption (MOC), which indicates the body’s ability to consume oxygen during muscular work. The IPC indicator is measured in liters per minute, but for greater objectification it can be converted into milliliters per minute per kilogram (mlminkg) of body weight.
The highest rates of BMD are recorded for skiers and marathoners (50 – 70 km) – the magnitude of the IPC reaches 83 – 85 ml minkg Jay Cutler injury. High indicators of the IPC for runners on long and medium distances (74 ml minkg), middle runners (72 ml minkg), skaters, road cyclists (74 – 75 ml minkg), swimmers and rowers (69 – 70 ml minkg), as well as representatives of team sports (60 – 65 mlminkg) Jay Cutler wildcat. But among representatives of power sports – gymnasts, throwers, weightlifters – this indicator practically does not differ from that of untrained people.
As already mentioned, the decomposition of glycogen and FFA during aerobic oxidation leads to a common substrate of both metabolic chains – acetyl-coenzyme A, which splits in the Krebs cycle. Strengthening the mitochondrial electron transport chain involves effects on substrates such as cytochromes, succinate, and coenzyme Q.
Cytochrome C in food supplements is not only not useful, but even harmful because it cannot be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). There is no evidence of effectiveness in sports Jay Cutler career stats. The clinic (including pediatrics and ophthalmology) is used for all hypoxic conditions.
Succinate (succinic acid) – there is no scientific research regarding the development of ergotropic effects Jay Cutler salary. Pure succinic acid does not penetrate into the mitochondria, and therefore its reception is useless.
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Coenzyme Q in the body is formed in adequate quantities. Nevertheless, in the USA it is a popular food additive (60–100 mg of 4–6 weeks) Jay Cutler (bodybuilder). Modern studies have not revealed the positive effects of such an additive.
Oxygen consumption during muscular workWhen going from a state of rest to intense muscular activity, the need for oxygen increases many times, however, it cannot be immediately satisfied. It is necessary that all bioenergetic reactions pass through consistently before the activity of the respiratory and circulatory systems increases, and the blood enriched with oxygen reaches the working muscles.
With uniform operation and the achievement of a certain power, the growth of oxygen consumption stops and it stabilizes at the same level Jay Cutler contract. This state of oxygen consumption by working muscles is called the true steady state of oxygen consumption, it reaches a certain level and at each given moment in time exactly corresponds to the needs of the organism. In other words, how much oxygen the body needs to do the work of such power, so much it receives it.
That zone of physical activity, which is located between the threshold of aerobic metabolism and the true steady state of oxygen consumption, is called the zone of aerobic physical activity Jay Cutler age. Work in this area can go on for hours (triathlon, marathon, long walking, sawing wood, etc.). Aerobic exercise trains the heart and general endurance and form the methodological basis of recreational exercise.
As the power of work increases, significant changes occur, in particular, a greater amount of oxygen is required, and therefore the true steady state of oxygen consumption is disturbed and a further increase in oxygen consumption exceeds the anaerobic metabolism threshold Jay Cutler and kristin cavallari. Typically, this condition in young untrained people occurs when the IPC reaches about 3.0 – 3.5 lmin.
Such an increase in the intake of oxygen can continue until the achievement of the IPC. At the same time, oxygen consumption also stabilizes Jay Cutler miami dolphins. This condition appears when setting the heart rate (HR) of the order of 170 – 180 udmin. Absolute indicators of power load values do not matter Jay Cutler’s wife. This stabilization of oxygen consumption during muscular work is called the false steady state of oxygen consumption, because in this case oxygen consumption does not grow, not because it is no longer needed, but because the mechanisms of oxygen transport to working muscles, and above all the cardiovascular system (CCC), have exhausted their functionality.
The maximum level of oxygen consumption cannot be maintained for a long time. A trained athlete will work in this zone for about 10 to 12 minutes, an untrained person will work about 5 minutes Jay Cutler butt. Since oxygen entering the body is not enough to perform the work of a given power, oxygen deficiency occurs, which is replenished by returning to anaerobic energy supply mechanisms, primarily to anaerobic glycolysis, which leads to an accumulation of anaerobic decomposition products in the body. Therefore, the zone of work capacity, which is located between the slats of the anaerobic metabolism threshold and the IPC, is called the zone of aerobic-anaerobic loads Jay Cutler cigarette. The work in this zone can be reflected by the formula oxygen demand for work more oxygen coming work. As work continues with a lack of oxygen, so-called oxygen debt arises.
If the work is possible to establish a true steady state, then part of the anaerobic metabolites can be oxidized in the course of work due to increased aerobic reactions, the other part is eliminated after work Jay Cutler height. If the true steady state is not established, the number of oxidized products increases as work progresses, and they are eliminated during the recovery period.
To eliminate anaerobic metabolites, an additional amount of oxygen is required, therefore, for some time after the end of work, its consumption continues to be increased compared with the level of rest Jay Cutler body builder. With sufficiently high workloads, the repayment of oxygen debt requires tens of minutes, and sometimes even hours.
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The zone of aerobic and anaerobic loads is for the most part a zone of professional sports activity. In recreational physical education, such power loads are used extremely limitedly and only among well-trained people.
The zone of power characteristics of the work, which is located above the bar of the IPC, is called the zone of anaerobic loads. Work in this zone proceeds at maximum functionality with a heart rate of about 220 – 240 udmin.
A professional athlete can work in this zone for about 4 to 5 minutes, and not trained for about a minute smokin Jay Cutler. Such physical activities are purely professional and sports and are not used in recreational exercise.
The propulsion system as a biomechanical system. Movement is the basis of human life. The most elementary form of motion of matter is mechanical motion, i.e. the movement of a body in space. The patterns of mechanical motion are studied by mechanics.
Biomechanics is the science of the laws of mechanical motion in living systems. She studies movements from the point of view of the laws of mechanics, peculiar to all the mechanical movements of material bodies without exception. However, the complexity of the movement and functions of a living organism requires careful consideration of anatomical and physiological features. Often what is beneficial from the point of view of the laws of mechanics is inexpedient, given the peculiarities of the structure and function of a living organism.
The movements of human body parts are movements in space and time that are performed in many joints simultaneously and sequentially. All movements are naturally combined into complete organized actions that a person manages with the help of muscles. In a biomechanical study, it is impossible to take into account the structure and functions of the body in all their features. To study the movements build a model of the human body, on which it is possible to study the patterns of movement, – the biomechanical system. It has basic properties that are essential for the performance of motor function, but does not include private parts.
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Kinematic chains. Many of the parts of the body that are connected movably form biokinematic or articulation chains. The forces (loads) are applied to them, which cause deformations and change of movements. Mechanical properties (features of the structure and function) of these chains affect the performance of movements.
When studying the statics and dynamics of the human body, anatomical information about the musculoskeletal system can be expressed in terms of mechanics. For example, the concepts of “bone” and “muscle” are interchangeable with the concepts of “lever” and “strength.”
Movement in the joints is carried out by muscle contraction. In other words, the joints are only hinges, driven by muscles. Regardless of the nature of the muscle and the method of attaching its tendons to the bone elements, the site of attachment of one of its ends remains stationary, while the opposite site of attachment starts to move when the muscle changes its length. As a result, there is a displacement of a portion of the skeleton, which serves as the place of attachment of the moving end of the muscle. With all the variety of movements produced in this way, they all fit into the pattern of movements carried out by a lever, the point of application of which action is formed by the joint.
The principles of muscular-articular biodynamics will be examined at work by M. biceps (Fig. 2).
The point of attachment of this muscle is the anterior surface of the humerus, its contraction causes or seeks to cause rotation of the forearm in the elbow joint around an axis, the direction of which approaches the transverse plane of this joint.
Force or moment (M) of rotation depends on three factors.
- own muscle strength (F);
- the angle of application of muscle strength, which form between the forearm and muscle (angle a);
- the length of the shoulder of the bone lever, running from the axis of rotation of the elbow joint to the site of attachment of the tendon (l).
Fig. 2. Biodynamics M. bisers (arrow indicates the direction of flexion)
The moment of rotation at the level of the axis of the elbow joint is determined by the formula. The value of sin а for a 90 ° angle is one, then the rotational force is equal to the product F · l, if the direction of the muscle force is perpendicular to the board of the forearm Jay Cutler nfl. The smaller the leverage and the greater the angle at which the force of gravity acts, the greater the required tension of the muscles. For the elbow joint, the minimum force is at 10 °, the average is at 30 °, the maximum is at 90 ° (sin 90 ° = 1).