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Training consists of three parts – warm-up, the main part and a hitch. Many athletes neglect the initial stage, considering it a waste of time. However, this is a gross error that can lead to injuries, serious complications and a decrease in the effectiveness of the training.
What is the role of the warm-up and what exercises are most suitable for this stage of training?
The importance of warm-up and basic principles
Warm up is an important part of the training process. It is a set of exercises aimed at preparing the body for serious physical exertion. The preparatory stage plays an important role, therefore it is essential and necessary to perform before strength training or cardiovascular work. Read the article about Step aerobics.
The role of the workout:
- Preparation of the body for increased intense stress.
- Heats up the muscles, which increases their power capabilities and improves the contractility.
- Increased elasticity of joints and ligaments, which avoids stretching or tearing.
- Reducing the risk of injury and improving the effectiveness of the training process.
- The warming of the heart muscle and the acceleration of blood circulation, which ensures the fastest delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the muscle cells.
- Activation of metabolic processes and increase of energy potential.
- Increased concentration and psychological preparation for the main part of the training.
The warm-up precedes the main part of the workout. Its average duration is 10-15 minutes. Warm-up should include complex exercises that will warm up and work out all muscle groups and elements of the musculoskeletal system.
Lack of warm-up can lead to negative consequences. Most often, athletes (especially beginners) encounter sprain. Such a trauma will not only force you to take a break in training, but also disrupt the motor activity, lead to discomfort, pain and disruption of the usual rhythm of life.
Suffice often there are injuries of the joints. The recovery period after such damage is long enough and extremely painful.
Possible negative consequences from the cardiovascular system. This can be manifested by dizziness, loss of consciousness, development of hypo- or hypertension.
Principles of warm-up:
- Begin the session from the top down, working first the neck, shoulders, elbows, wrists, pelvis, knees and ankle.
- For warm-up, it is necessary to choose dynamic, not static exercises, because its main goal is to prepare the body for increased loads, and not to relax.
- To begin the lesson follows from a slow pace and a small amplitude of movements, gradually increasing the intensity.
- Do not make sharp movements and strictly observe the technique. The appearance of pain or discomfort indicates the presence of errors. In this case, it is worthwhile to stop, analyze your actions and consult with the coach.
Exercises for warm-up
To warm up, you need to use a set of exercises, which includes:
- Cardio – activates blood circulation, activates the cardiac muscle, preparing it for more serious stress.
- Dynamic stretching makes the muscles more elastic and improves their contractility, which activates growth.
- Exercises to work out the locomotor system warm up the joints, tendons and ligaments.
The first part of the warm-up includes exercises that improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system. For this, it is better to use walking on the spot; walking with a high knee lift; running on the spot; jampingjack; steps aside; jumping alternately on one leg; jumping rope; attacks. When performing cardio-loads, follow low or moderate intensity.
Joint exercises include the following exercises:
- circular rotation of the head, inclines to the sides, forward and backward;
- rotation of the shoulder joints, wrists, knees and feet;
- rotation of the pelvis.
Dynamic stretching includes inclines forward and sideways, mill exercise, side attacks. To stretch the back, cross your arms in front of you and maximally pull them forward, bending your back. Working the pectoral muscles will allow the following exercise: put your hands on your lower back and set your chest forward. Try to keep the shoulder blades together as much as possible.
To stretch the muscles of the hip, bend the leg to your knees and hold it with your hand from behind. Repeat the same exercise with another limb.
At the end of the warm-up, you must perform an exercise that will help to restore breathing. For this, taking a deep breath, raise your hands up, stand on your toes and stretch slightly. Dropping and exhaling make a cross swing.
Warm-up is an important part of effective training, which allows you to prepare for high-intensity loads and prevents injuries. Perform warm-up exercises should be before each training for 15 minutes. Neglect of the rules increases the risk of injuries and problems with the cardiovascular system.